112047 Scientific Working and Writing

Lecture and exercise
Semester hours
Lecturer (assistant)
Zitek, Andreas
Offered in
Wintersemester 2017/18
Languages of instruction


Theoretical part with short practice exercises:
•Becoming familiar with the scientific method
•Who makes science why?
•Science Ethics
•Brief history of the development of modern science
•Deduction vs. induction
•Hypothesis, theory, law, paradigm
•Basics of scientific working and writing
•The writing process
•How do I read a scientific paper? Structured decoding the content of a scientific publication
•Structure of a scientific publication
•Appropriate referencing/citing and plagiarism
•Adding captions to tables and graphs correctly
•Definition of individual research questions
Practical part with a short theoretical input:
•Writing of a mini-publication (Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References) based on elementary structural guidelines
•Literature research using Scopus, Science Direct and Google scholar
•Management of references & pdf files using Endnote
•Formatting of citations according to the Harvard Style using Endnote
•Structured reading of academic publications
•Excerpting & paraphrasing of the content of publications by means of predetermined questions

Objective (expected results of study and acquired competences)

Develop scientific writing skills by writing a mini-publication (Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References) based on elementary structural guidelines

Graduates of the course
•Know and master the scientific method as a working tool for scientific working and learning
•Know the main epistemological principles of science and are able to judge the possibilities and limitations of science ("What can we know?"), with a focus on the evolutionary epistemology and on the historical development of methodology in "modern" science
•Understand the principles of ethics in sciences
•Understand the theory and phases of the writing process, and are able to better control their own writing process
•Practise of clustering (as opposed to mind-mapping) as a method to find one's own research theme, and are thus able to define research topics and questions related to their interests
•Learn structured reading and understanding of scientific texts
•Master scientific literature research with the major search engines
•Master the import of citations in a reference management program (Endnote)
•Master citation styles for academic work, and are able to use the "CiteWhileYouWrite" function of EndNote for building an automatic bibliography
•Learn the basic formal structure of a scientific paper
•Know the internal structure (internal formal structure, use of time, etc.) of each chapter of a scientific paper (title, abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements)
•Are able to label and reference figures and tables correctly
•Develop practical skills of planning and writing of scientific papers by writing a full scientific mini-publication on their own
•Learn to give and receive structured feedback in the context of the peer review process
You can find more details like the schedule or information about exams on the course-page in BOKUonline.