Die Bodenkultur - Journal for Land Management, Food and Environment
M. Bavec, F. Bavec, B. Varga and V. Kovačević:
Relationships among yield, it’s quality and yield components in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars affected by seeding rates
The relationships among grain yield, it’s quality and yield components of 12 spread winter wheat cultivars in Slovenia affected by seeding rates were observed in field experiments sown in mid October and fertilised with high nitrogen rates for a period of seven years. In spite of grain yield differences among cultivars, interactions between seeding rates x cultivars were significant in two years. Yield components such as number of ears (621, 677, 711 and 760 ears per m2 formed at 350, 550, 650 and 800 seeds per m2, respectively) compensated for the effect of different seeding rates on grain yield (8,19, 8,33, 8,40 and 8,26 t per ha, respectively), except in one year. Numbers of ears m-2 expressed firm correlation with grain yield (r = 0,597***). Negative correlation was found between number of ears per m2 and kernel weight in ear (r = -0,398***), and between number of ears per m2 and 1000-kernel weight (r = -0,468***).
Increased seeding rate from 350 to 800 seeds per m2 decreased kernel weight per ear (from 1,46 to 1,28 g), number of kernels per ear (from 34 to 30 g) and 1000-kernel weight (from 45,41 to 42,99 g); similar trends were found also in grain quality, i.e. grain protein content decreased from 13,20 to 13,06 % and sedimentation value from 45 to 43 ml, respectively. The results of this study suggest that less than 500 to 650 winter wheat seeds per m2 can be recommended under optimal sowing date.
Key words: winter wheat, sowing density, yield components, quality.